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Human vascular endothelial cells in primary cell culture for the evaluation of nanoparticle bioadhesion.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 6, Issue 9-10, p.3303-9 (2006)


Adhesiveness, Cell Adhesion, Cells, Cultured, Endothelial Cells, Humans, Materials Testing, Nanoparticles, Particle Size, Tissue Adhesives


Nanoparticles (NP) are employed in various therapeutic approaches for innovative drug delivery strategies. Among them, there is drug delivery to the brain and sustained release forms for intravenous drug delivery. In order to optimize drug carriers and to elucidate involved mechanisms such as bioadhesion and cellular uptake, NP were surface modified and analyzed for their interaction with human endothelial cells in cell culture. Fluorescently labeled NP of different diameters (50 to 1000 nm) were surface modified either by simple adsorption of chitosan or by covalent binding to the lectin ulex europaeus agglutinin and thereafter applied to human endothelial cells for different incubation periods. After incubation with NP the binding of NP was quantified directly by the fluorescence emission signals from the cell layers. In order to visualize the binding behaviour, NP were localized three-dimensionally in the cell layer by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell binding experiments in phosphate buffer were observed to be particle size dependent with the 50 nm NP showing the highest binding percentage over all experiments. Binding decreased with increasing particle diameter and shorter incubation interval. The adhesion was further enhanced by NP surface modifications in the order blank < chitosan < lectin. The presence of plasma proteins enhanced the adhesiveness of chitosan coated NP, while the binding of lectin coated NP was inhibited. Experiments at 4 degrees C indicated the involvement of an active process in the binding of NP to endothelial cells.